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Puerto Rico: 101 Years Later

On July 25, 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the U.S. invaded Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans gained U.S. citizenship in 1917. 101 years later, the debate over Puerto Rico's political status continues. 

Learn and teach about Puerto Rico's history and the Spanish-American War with articles and teaching activities from NCSS peer-reviewed publications Social Education and Social Studies and the Young Learner. Also explore a sampling of resource collections from some of our colleagues.

Examine the history of Hispanic heritage in North America in this special section: "The Hispanic Heritage of North America: Commemorating 500 Years,” Social Education, 2013

Discover inquiry-driven lessons to teach historical thinking about the Spanish-American War and other topics: "Using the Web to Teach Historical Thinking," Social Education, 2008

Make history come alive by learning from Spanish-American War veterans (and veterans from other wars) buried in local cemeteries: "A Century of Veterans: Researching History Through Our Local Cemetery," Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2008


And from our colleagues...

Examine Puerto Rican experiences of the United States throughout the 20th century with this lesson from PBS: Puerto Rican Perspectives

Watch and discuss video clips from PBS that serve as a case study for how community organization and action: Antonia Pantoja: ¡Presente! 

Analyze primary sources from the Spanish-American War using this primary source set from the Library of Congress: The Spanish-American War: The United States Becomes a World Power

Learn more about Puerto Rico's history before U.S. invasion in this Critical Thinking Timeline from the Library of Congress: Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age: Nineteenth - and Early-Twentieth-Century Perspectives