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Middle Level

Rope Circles and Giant Trees: Making History Come Alive

--Robert Millward
Students in grades 4-8 can get a feeling for what the colonial frontier was like when the lesson includes physical activity, paintings, artifacts, diaries, and discussions. (Includes 2-page color poster by Robert Griffing.)

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Talking with Children about the Columbian Exchange

--Lynette Field and Judith Y. Singer
The authors describe books for youth about 1) the early encounters between Native Americans and Europeans, and 2) cultural and economic wealth generated by the coming of horses to the continent, and 3) forced marches and separation of families.

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Pocahontas: Comparing the Disney Image with Historical Evidence

--Margaret Golden
Fourth grade students critically compare the fictionalized account with various historical sources. In the 1615 English engraving, that Elizabethan collar on Pocahontas "probably hid tattooing."

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A River Through Time:The Gila River and the Akimel O’odham

--Carol Carney Warren
Through the use of primary source materials, students can investigate the effects that dam construction on the Gila River has had on the lifestyle of the Pima Indians in central Arizona.

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Conflict Resolution in History: The War with Mexico as a Case Study

--Arlene L. Gardner and John Chambers
By applying conflict resolution strategies to such events as the Mexican-American War, students grapple with difficult historical disputes, learn mediation and negotiation skills, and gain a deeper understanding of the costs, complexities, and consequences of conflict.

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Habeas Corpus and “Enemy Combatants”

By Carolyn Pereira and Nisan Chavkin
The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government’s responsibility to protect the nation’s welfare. The featured elementary, middle, and high school lessons explore the significance of this right.

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