Resources for Teaching about Sub-Saharan Africa

Samuel Hinton, Barry Mowell, and Diane L. Brook

This article is a compilation of several kinds of resources available for teaching about Sub-Saharan Africa. The diverse opportunities now open to teachers and students range from resource groups that focus on the region, to the wide open territory of the Internet, to the traditional and contemporary offerings of the print medium. Each of the following articles contains a brief introduction followed by selected examples of the resource described.

Resource Groups for Sub-Saharan Africa

Samuel Hinton

Teaching about Sub-Saharan Africa is no longer the arduous task it was a few decades back. The scant attention then accorded the region in textbooks and school curriculum plans caused teachers to seek out "travelers' tales"-the firsthand experiences of Peace Corps volunteers, missionaries, and others returned from Africa-and the experiences of Africans living in the United States to enliven the subject. In the 1990s, access to materials about Sub-Saharan Africa has become much wider, even instantaneous, although there is still a long way to go in providing frameworks of knowledge and helping teachers to become comfortable with this subject matter.
Why teach about Sub-Saharan Africa? What is the significance of this region in the global landscape? To me, these are redundant questions that were convincingly answered long ago. Sub-Saharan Africa is an important part of our increasingly interdependent world. In a sense, it is the "continent of the future," since its vast natural and mineral resources must inevitably interest a world caught up in conspicuous consumption and rapidly depleting its expendable resources.

For the people of the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa is the ancestral home of millions of African Americans. The United States has an important stake in the development of Africa south of the Sahara into a peaceful, democratic, and prosperous region. For those of us who have lived there it is, more simply, a nice and beautiful place to live, work, and raise a family.

The following resource groups offer materials useful to the classroom study of Sub-Saharan Africa. These groups are categorized as follows:

University Programs
East Carolina University
A one-stop website for accessing college/ university African Studies programs is provided by East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858. It includes 32 listings, most to American or British universities. Some of the specific listings follow.

http://www.ecu.edu/ArchivesandPrograms.htm
African American Universities
There are about sixty-five African American colleges and universities on this list. Many have programs in Sub-Saharan Africa and offer good resources for teaching about the region.

http://198.206.21.6/~valco/blackuniv.html
Boston University
The African Studies Center at Boston University is one of the first interdisciplinary African Studies programs created in the United States. It houses a United States Department of Education National Resource Center for African Language and Area Studies. It offers information and teaching aids, including a nationwide video lending library for teaching about Africa. It has produced a video, "What Do We Know About Africa?" with an accompanying curriculum guide. Contact: African Studies Center, 270 Bay State Rd., Boston University, Boston, MA 02215. Telephone: (617) 353-7303.

http://web.bu.edu/AFR/
Michigan State University
The African Studies Center has a comprehensive outreach program that includes services to schools (grades K-12). Its resources include a library containing more than 4,500 books, 150 filmstrips, 200 transparencies, 3000 slides and 200 African music recordings for loan to teachers, students and the public. Contact: African Studies Center, Michigan State University, 100 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824. Telephone: (517) 353-1700. Fax: (517) 432-1209.

Stanford Center for African Studies
The Stanford website provides information on its undergraduate African Studies program. This website also includes a list of selected Internet Resources on Africa South of the Sahara. Contact the Center at: Room 200, Encina Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6055. Telephone: (415) 723-0295.
http://portfolio.stanford.edu/103667

University of Florida
The Center for African Studies has an outreach program whose objective is to improve the teaching of Africa in schools (grades K-12), universities and the community. It offers reader workshops, resources and lessons plans. Contact: Center for AfricanStudies, 427 Grinter Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Telephone: (352) 392-2183.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This program offers various materials for sale, including maps, general information pieces, and Fact Sheets on Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Contact: Center for African studies, 210 International Studies Building, 910 South Fifth St., Champaign, IL 61820. Telephone: (217) 333-6335. Fax: (217) 244-2429.
http://wsi.cso.uiuc.edu/CAS/

University of Pennsylvania
The university publishes a K-12 Electronic Guide for African Resources on the Internet. These materials include an interdisciplinary unit on Africa South of the Sahara; information about African festivals; and a group of African short stories written by American ninth-grade students at Huron High School in Ann Arbor Michigan.
http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Home_Page/AFR_GIDE.html

Yale University
This African Studies program was established in 1985 as a Title VI National Resource Center of the U.S Department of Education. Its Learning Resource Center has a collection of several hundred books, curriculum units, audio-visual materials, and artifacts available for K-12 and college use. Staff members also lead workshops for K-12 teachers at state and national social studies conferences. Contact: African Studies Outreach Program, Council on African Studies, 89 Trumbull Street, Box 14A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Telephone: (203) 432-3438.

African Studies Associations
African Language Teachers Association (ALTA)
ALTA is interested in the teaching of African languages. It organizes workshops and publishes a newsletter. Contact: Karl Reynolds, African Studies Center, Boston University, 270 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215.

African Studies Association
The African Studies Association has about 4,000 members, most of whom are teachers and researchers in institutions of higher learning. All interested in the scholarly study of Africa are welcome to join. Publications include African Studies Review, a scholarly journal; Issue: A Journal of Opinion, a biannual magazine; and a newsletter. Contact: African Studies Association, Credit Union Building, Atlanta, GA 30322. Telephone: (404) 329-6410. Note that this address is scheduled to change to Rutgers University in January 1998. The association's web site is hosted by the University of Pennsylvania:
http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/

African Studies Association of Nigeria
Nigeria is Sub-Saharan Africa's most populous state and has a rich multiethnic cultural history. This group draws its membership from 11 institutions in Nigeria. Contact: African Studies Association of Nigeria, c/o Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
African Studies Association of Young Scholars (ASAYS)
Formed to promote scholarship and professionalism within the community of young Africanist scholars. Contact: Laura Hendricks or Karl Fickenscher, The James S. Coleman African Studies Center, U.C.L.A. 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90024. Fax: (310) 206-2250.

Non-Profit Organizations
Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA)
This is a non-profit group that provides assistance to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that are in a situation of crisis or chronic distress. It seeks long-term solutions through developing the local capacity for solving future crises.
One exciting project is a global village exhibition built by Hollywood set designers to display ten habitats on four continents. The Sub-Saharan African habitat is a Masai kraal. Call ADRA to see whether the exhibition will be near your area in the future. Contact: 12501 Old Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, MD 20904. Telephone: 800-424-2372. Fax: 301-680-6370.

http:// www.adra.org/
African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF)
In many areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, health infrastructure is scant or non-existent. AMREF works with local communities in five countries-Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and South Africa-to alleviate health problems such as epidemics, civil war, uncontrolled population growth, and environmental damage. Its programs operate through African Country Offices and include the Flying Doctor Service, which provides emergency care to remote areas. AMREF publishes teaching materials, medical research, and a health code for travelers.

http://www.amref.org/
British Museum
The British Museum is a storehouse of information on Africa south of the Sahara. One good program is titled "Benin and Teaching About Africa." It raises many issues in teaching about Africa by addressing such topics as: What is African Art? and How should we represent Africa in museums and schools? The course is suitable for primary and secondary school teachers of history, art, geography, and other subjects.

http://www.kcl.ac.uk/kis/schools/education/Courses/INSET/96BM1.html
Interaction
The most comprehensive list of non-profit organizations involved in the region is that compiled by Interaction, the world's largest coalition of relief, development, and refugee agencies. It contains a listing of 154 member organizations with headquarters in 22 countries. Some of the organizations that work in Sub-Saharan Africa are: Save the Children, American Red Cross, Baptist World Aid, CARE, Catholic Relief Services, Friends of Sierra Leone, Islamic African Relief Agency USA, Laubach Literacy International, Médicins Sans Frontières USA (Doctors Without Borders), the Peace Corps, and OIC International.

http://www.interaction.org/members.html
Peace Studies Association
This is an independent federation of individuals and college/university programs for the study of peace, conflict, justice, and global security. The goal is to address the needs of peace studies programs. Contact: Peace Studies Association, Drawer 105, Earlham College, Richmond, IN 47374-4095. Telephone: (317) 983-1305. Fax: (317) 983-1229. E-mail: psa@earlham.edu.

UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization carries out
programs throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. The UNESCO Documentation and Information Network in Education offers materials carefully targeted to reach various 'users,' from schoolteachers in rural areas to major national, regional, and international institutions.
One program of interest is "Islands For Peace in Somalia." According to UNESCO, there are about 5 million street children in Africa. "Islands for Peace in Somalia" has established three pilot education centers to provide an "emergency curriculum" in primary education and a non-formal literacy program that includes life skills. Each center serves as a "focal point" for a cluster of ten nearby schools, and supplies a curriculum using old Somali language texts supplemented by fresh materials on civics, family life, peace education, and sports competition through fair play. UNESCO expects the experience gained through these centers to be extended to other key locations across the country. Contact: UNESCO-New York, Liaison Office with the United Nations, D.C. II Building, 2 UN Plaza, Office No. 900, New York, N.Y. 10017. Telephone: (212) 963- 5978. Fax: (212) 355- 5627.

http://www.education.unesco.org/educprog/
brochure/026.html
World Heritage Properties
UNESCO has developed a list of world sites of exceptional natural and/or cultural value. As of 1997, there are about 506 sites. Check out the ones in Sub-Saharan Africa.
http://www.unesco.org/whc/list.htm

Sub-Saharan Africa on the Internet

Barry Mowell

Sub-Saharan Africa contains an enormous variety of environments and cultures, a wealth of history, and a complex mosaic of contemporary issues with direct links to or impacts on the outside world. Teachers can expand their knowledge of Sub-Saharan Africa exponentially by using the Internet. While online data sources cannot replace printed sources, the combination they offer of updated texts and appealing visuals makes them a powerful classroom tool. Students may enjoy downloading free materials and feel excited at discovering the unexpected. An excellent guide to Internet resources is the World Wide Web Yellow Pages Directory (New Riders Press, 1997, 900 pp.).
The resources listed here are meant to be a springboard for more intensive searches. To assemble them, I used the "Liszt" online index (www.liszt.com). Other search engines especially good for geographic information on the region (using the description "Sub-Saharan Africa") were Lycos (www.lycos.com), AltaVista (www.altavista.com), Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com), and Galileo (www.galileo.com). Some of the sites are based at institutions in the United States, while others are based in Africa. They represent a broad cross-section of what is available on the Internet in:

Online Resources
(See also web sites listed on pp. 423-424)

Africa Online
http://www.africaonline.com/
An African internet service provider's homepage with news, weather, "Africa in Fact," and other information, focusing primarily on northern countries.

Africa South of the Sahara
http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/ssrg/africa/
guide.html
A good all-round source of information on many subjects including politics, history, religion, sports, education, development, current events, and culture in 36 topics and organized by regions. There are links to many other resources.

African Data Dissemination Service (ADDS)
http://edcintl.cr.usgs.gov/adds/adds.html
A rich geographic resource, this is a USAID project supported by the United States Geologic Survey and including many EROS resources from USGS. Data are grouped by geographic area: W. Sahel, Greater Horn of Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa. For each region and its countries there are data such as flags, basic country-statistics, satellite images, national and local maps, history and development. Multiple images are available, with "most current images" as well as earlier images from satellites. A prime online resource collection for the region.

CIA World Factbook
http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/nsolo/wfb-all.htm
Comprehensive, global coverage of a vast range of topics; resources include current maps and detailed data for all countries including those in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently updated to offer 1996 information and statistics. A very useful site for student projects.

Citynet
http://city.net/regions/africa/
Global coverage with links to other sites: countries and regions of the world. Included here are links to maps, history and literature, guides for travel, frequently asked questions, pictures, and weather around the world.

Columbia University African Studies Program
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/area/Africa/index.html
The Columbia University Area Studies, African Studies Internet Resources index contains a vast array of resources including reading lists for students and teachers, K-12 curriculum materials; information about culture, art, history, science, and development; and a world atlas. Features include historical, continent, country and city maps, satellite images, flags, "make your own map," and current data.

Current History
http://www.currenthistory.com/
Feature issues on Africa, with in-depth articles on particular countries with maps. Suitable for reading materials in higher grades. Abstracts, book reviews, topics in the coming issue, and an index of articles are useful features.

Earthlife Africa
http://www.gem.co.za/ELA/
An organization's site detailing the philosophy and activities of the conservation group and offering accounts of ecological "green" issues in Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Governments of Sub-Saharan Africa
http://asa.ugl.lib.umich.edu/libhome/
Documents.center/forafr.html
General information on government and politics, culture, and history on countries including Angola, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritius, Senegal, Nigeria, Zambia, and South Africa. Information is updated and current.

A History of Africa
http://www.demon.co.uk/africa/history/docs/history1.htm
"A-Z of African history." Many interesting facts and an African history quiz. This site is more superficial than some, but interesting for trivia and some general information of the "did you know" kind.

Internet Gateway to Southern Africa
http://minotaur.marques.co.za/
Offers many resources and links to sites on South Africa and neighbors, on an array of topics including tourism, arts, education, culture, development, health, science, technology, news magazines, and computer technology.

NASA
http://www.nasa.gov
A vast resource containing many forms of visual and factual scientific data, organized by data types and topics, and including many African resources and images. Satellite images, digital images, etc. are annotated and are provided in several levels of resolution. Of special interest are collections of teacher resources and the photo-video gallery.

National Geographic Society
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/
Sterling quality materials and visuals on many topics as featured in the magazine and on videos. The Society also offers vast numbers of teaching resources and information related to research projects funded by NGS. The site's Map Machine offers an online atlas and satellite images of 190 countries, accessable by continent, country, or index topic. One of the prime resources for teachers.

Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa
http://www.trincoll.edu/polisci/Courses/POLS320/africa.html
Links to many country-specific sites, for example, Angola, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, Zambia. This resource was developed specifically for use in student research projects.

Running the Nile
http://www.adventureonline.com/nile/
An adventure page, largely a personal
account of the first ever trip down the first 300 miles of the Nile River in Uganda, by a group of kayakers. It includes numerous high-quality photos, maps, and classroom resources/references ("Nile classroom"), biographies of the participants, and other information on the adventure.

Teaching Unit on Sub-Saharan Africa
http://trms.k12.fulton.ga.net/~hwhitake/Africa.html
Classroom materials on people, culture, and wildlife. Can occasionally be difficult to access.

Thumelela Archeology Site, Kruger National Park, South Africa
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/6398/
This site provides interesting pictures and information on the excavation of the sites of Thumelela, in the Kruger National Park in South Africa, that yielded the remains of a woman dating to A.D. 1240-1630, and those of a male ruler.

News Sources
These have news links to most countries, or access news and articles on a specific country.

Africa News Service
http://www.africanews.org/
A news site offering breaking stories, links to topical reporting by country and region, and dispatches from PanAfrica News Agency.

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Free selections from current issues of the weekly journal (International Section), high quality detailed articles each week. Registration is required for access to the Economist archives; some free trial use is available for the archival data, thereafter full access to all two years of issues requires payment. One of the best sources for updates on contemporary issues, as well as some maps.

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Registration is required but free of charge. Excellent in-depth articles on contemporary issues; political commentary, color photographs (as opposed to the daily printed version). Online exclusive features are an added benefit.

Rwanda Crisis Web
http://www.intac.com/PubService/rwanda/
This site was down at the time of writing, but not discontinued: try to access it.

South Africa Weekly Mail and Guardian
http://www.mg.co.za/mg/
This is a leading local newspaper in South Africa, known for comprehensive coverage of issues and for political commentary.

South Africa Independent Online Service
http://www.independent.co.za/news/
This site contains news from South Africa, updated daily.

Newsgroups
A different branch of the Internet requiring Netscape or a newsreader to access the posted discussions.
clari.world.africa.southern
Regional coverage
clari.world.africa.south_africa
News from South Africa.
soc.culture.south-africa
South African society, culture, and politics.
clari.world.africa.eastern
Regional coverage
clari.world.africa.western
Regional coverage

Sub-Saharan Africa Between Covers

Diane L. Brook

At one time, social studies teachers could justifiably argue that teaching about Sub-Saharan Africa was problematic, given its sparse treatment in textbooks and a paucity of interesting supplementary materials. Over the past several years, however, events in Africa have received global attention on a scale not seen for decades-resulting in a proliferation of new books and other materials. The opportunity is at hand for teachers and students to investigate the region in all of its complexity. The following suggestions for looking at Sub-Saharan Africa between covers fall into two overlapping categories:

Histories and Political Studies
There are numerous books available as teacher references on Sub-Saharan Africa, some more appropriate at the college level and for the most advanced high school students than for general use. However, teachers can effectively use excerpts with students of different skill levels. Some countries and sub-regions-Nigeria and West Africa, Kenya and East Africa, South Africa and Southern Africa-have received considerable attention from scholars, while more gaps exist in the sources available for Central Africa.
There are many classic treatments of the history and development of Africa. Good surveys of the continent and its peoples include Bohanan and Curtin's Africa and Africans (Natural History Press, 1971); Gibbs' Peoples of Africa (Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1965); and Iliffe's Africans: The History of a Continent (Cambridge, 1995). West African histories include Davidson's History of West Africa to the Nineteenth Century (Anchor, 1966); Webster et al, History of West Africa: 1815 to Independence (Longmans, 1967); and Fage's A History of West Africa (Cambridge, 1969).

In other sub-regions, Puttkamer's Mau Mau (Chicago Literary Club, 1957) chronicles the liberation war in Kenya, an account considered shocking at the time by white settlers and outsiders who underestimated the level of resistance to British rule. For South Africa, there are fine studies of the impact of European occupation of the subcontinent on indigenous societies. Among these are Morris' well-known Washing of the Spears: The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation (Simon and Schuster, 1965); Duminy and Guest's Natal and Zululand: From Earliest Times to 1910, A New History (Shuter and Shooter, 1989); Laband's Rope of Sand: The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Kingdom in the Nineteenth Century (Jonathan Ball, 1995); and Mostert's Frontiers: The Epic of South Africa's Creation and the Tragedy of the Xhosa People (Knopf, 1992). These are each massive works, but well worth a look by the teacher who wants to offer students real insight into the complexities of events in the region as well as their modern implications.

One book American teachers are certain to find interesting is Davidson's excellent account, The African Slave Trade (Little Brown, 1980), which surveys the trade from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries and provides valuable perspective on its full extent and impacts. Along the way, Davidson provides information on pre-colonial kingdoms and societies in the Congo and elsewhere that were affected by the slave trade and subsequent colonial aggression. The same author's The Lost Cities of Africa (Little Brown, 1987) contains many potential excerpts on cities and kingdoms of Africa suitable for classroom use.

The colonial period and the "scramble for Africa" are standard topics in world history and are often fairly well represented in textbooks. However, more in-depth insights can be obtained from sources such as Cartey and Kilson's The Africa Reader: Colonial Africa (Vintage, 1970); Betts' The Scramble for Africa: Causes and Dimensions of Empire (Heath, 1972); Collins' The Partition of Africa: Illusion or Necessity (Wiley, 1969); and Wright's The New Imperialism: Analysis of Late Nineteenth Century Expansion (Heath, 1976).

Explorers' tales-often overlooked-provide another fascinating window on the opening of the continent to Europeans, on the motives of the colonizers, and on the impacts of European penetration on local societies. Many explorers and individuals who paved the way for colonization either left memoirs or had their exploits chronicled by others. The explorers include Speke, Burton, Livingstone, Stanley, and Rhodes. These tales are also valuable for environmental observations that, in the manner of the times, tended to be exhaustive.

For perspectives on the impact of colonization on Africans, must-read sources include several works by Mazrui, especially The Africans: A Triple Heritage (Little Brown, 1986), in which he examines the indigenous, Arab, and European legacies; Fanon's A Dying Colonialism (Grove, 1965) and other works; Memmi's The Colonizer and the Colonized (Beacon, 1965); and Crowder's West African Resistance: The Military Response to Colonial Occupation (Hutchinson, 1971).

To confront stereotypes and misconceptions about Africa and Africans, there are some powerful resources. Murray's The School in the Bush: A Critical Study of the Theory and Practice of Native Education in Africa (Longmans Green, 1929) is a museum piece of early twentieth century thinking about what was "good" for Africans in the colonial mind. Hammond and Jablow's The Africa That Never Was: Four Centuries of Writing About Africa (Waveland, 1970) is a classic, readable and full of documentation of the

European colonial literature in which imperialist and white supremacist thinking, and the denigration of Africans, are pervasive. These authors explore the concept of the "white man's burden" to civilize and uplift Africans. A different consideration of people's motives is provided by Anderson's Imagined Communities (Verso, 1991), a series of essays on the spread of nationalism worldwide (including many parts of Africa), and the resultant creation of "imagined communities" of nationality.

Consideration of resistance struggles, postcolonial identity, and contemporary development in the region are well presented in Davidson's Modern Africa (Longman, 1994) and The Black Man's Burden (Currey, 1992), the latter an excellent source of reading selections on the long-term implications of colonialism for Sub-Saharan African countries that have retained European-style institutions and succumbed to forms of neocolonialism. Cowell's Killing the Wizards: Wars of Power and Freedom from Zaire to South Africa (Simon & Schuster, 1992) is useful for comparing recent events in different countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Turning to South Africa, Sparks' The Mind of South Africa: The Story of the Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Mandarin, 1991) is one of the best and most blunt accounts of white South African justifications for apartheid and the dilemmas they posed for liberals. In The White Tribe of Africa (Ariel, 1985), author Harrison presents a powerful portrait of the Afrikaner, his biblical ideology, and his philosophical rationale for apartheid. Van Rooyen's Hard Right: The New White Power in South Africa (Taurus, 1994) exposes readers to the neo-Nazi dimensions of Afrikaner conservatism, which comes complete with modified swastika symbols and charismatic leaders attempting to challenge multiracial democracy in South Africa today. In Waiting: The Whites of South Africa (Vintage, 1986)-an ethnographic portrait that is disturbingly real-Crapanzano documents the mindset of a white community seen as a microcosm of a larger society bent on self-deception and self-justification for its domination of non-whites.

Two brief but powerful studies of resistance to apartheid in South Africa are Beating Apartheid and Building the Future by Kane-Berman et al (South African Institute of Race Relations, 1990) and Kane-Berman's acclaimed news analysis, South Africa's Silent Revolution (SAIRR, 1991), which celebrates how ordinary people of all races, rather than political elites, steadfastly resisted apartheid and assisted in its eventual downfall. These books are suitable for use with many levels of readers in social studies classes.

Two more scholarly works on postcolonial identity are Werbner and Ranger's Postcolonial Identities in Africa (Zed Books, 1996) and Adedeji's incisive analysis, South Africa and Africa: Within or Apart? (Zed Books, 1996), which examines the issue of whether or not a democratic South Africa can play a leadership role in the larger continent. For a geographic look at identity, a case study of the city of Kano in Nigeria in Yaeger's The Geography of Identity (Univ. of Michigan Press, 1996) is suitable for classroom analysis of place, space, and identity relationships.

Making connections between struggles for equality and democracy in Africa and those in the United States is a likely interest of social studies teachers. Teachers might use works such as the following to help students ponder the universal issues involved in racism as well as the links between America and Africa: DuBois' The Souls of Black Folk (Bantam, 1989) and The World and Africa: An Inquiry Into the Part Which Africa has Played in World History, Including Essays on the Personalities and Future of the Nations of Africa (International Publishers, 1992); Wellman's Portraits of White Racism (Cambridge, 1993), a set of case histories equating racism with prejudice; Omi and Winant's Racial Formation in the United States, from the 1960s to the 1990s (Routledge, 1994); works by Kozol, including Amazing Grace (Harper Perennial, 1996) and Savage Inequalities (Harper Perennial, 1992); and Spring's Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality: Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States (McGraw Hill, 1997). Many of these works can be used to prompt students' reflections on their own experiences.

Biographies and Autobiographies
The perspectives of Africans set in life stories often impart more reality to the study of their countries. Autobiographies or biographies exist of most figures prominent in the modern politics of Sub-Saharan Africa. This includes Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Idi Amin of Uganda, Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, and recently deposed Mobuto Sese Seko of Zaire.
An outstanding political autobiography is Mandela's Long Walk to Freedom (Little Brown, 1994), a heartrending account of his life and struggles to overturn apartheid. A good biography of Mandela's life is Meer's Higher Than Hope (Harper Perennial, 1988). Chained Together: Mandela, DeKlerk, and the Struggle to Remake South Africa (Times Books, 1993) by Ottaway is a straightforward and personal account that emphasizes the irony of the ties binding these two South African leaders together.

Two other compelling autobiographies of anti-apartheid crusaders are Suzman's In No Uncertain Terms (Mandarin, 1993), a memoir of her years as South Africa's first white female member of Parliament and tireless foe of apartheid; and Tambo's Oliver Tambo Speaks: Preparing for Power (George Braziller, 1988) detailing his years working underground while in exile.

There are many other biographical/historical accounts for teachers to consider in presenting sub-regions of Africa south of the Sahara. They include Haley's Roots (Doubleday, 1976), a fictional history/biography widely acclaimed for its connective potential to Africa; Huxley's 1959 classic The Flame Trees of Thika: Memories of an African Childhood (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1987); and Dinesen's Out of Africa (Random House, 1938), chronicling her life in colonial Kenya and popularized in the hit movie of the same name. Fossey's Gorillas in the Mist (Houghton Mifflin, 1983) highlights her work and explores the tragic conflict between humans and highland gorillas in the Uganda-Rwanda-Zaire junction, a region of volcanic peaks that is the species' last refuge. Finally, in Paley's Kwanzaa and Me: A Teacher's Story (Harvard, 1995), American teachers and students give expression to multicultural issues in stories that can be used for comparison with African life stories.

Samuel Hinton is an associate professor and Coordinator of Educational Studies in the College of Education, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond.
Barry Mowell is a member of the geography faculty in the Department of Social Sciences at Broward Community College in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He thanks Duncan C. Brook for his assistance in checking, editing, and updating the sites mentioned in this article.
Diane L. Brook is a professor at the University of Georgia, Athens, in the College of Education. She is also a member of the University's African Studies Faculty.