The Persistence of Youth: Oral Testimonies of the Holocaust.
Edited by Josey G. Fisher. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1991. 171 pp. Paper. Reviewed by Samuel Totten.
The testimonies published in this book have been culled from more than 600 survivor testimonies collected by the Holocaust Oral History Archive of Gratz College in Philadelphia. The accounts are from a broad spectrum of youth who experienced Nazi terror firsthand. Included are religious Jews, secular Jews, and non-Jews (including a Gypsy). Some were children at the time; others were teenagers. Some joined resistance groups; others resisted on a smaller and more personal but still signi&Mac222;cant level. Some lost both parents; others ended up protecting their parents. Some spent the Holocaust years in hiding, while others were sent to concentration camps or escaped to another country. These accounts are by and about youths who spent their formative years under a reign of terror that irrevocably altered the collective face of humanity as well as their own lives.

As Josey G. Fisher says in the preface: "The youth of the Holocaust were caught in the time of their growing. Their external world had real enemies and unspeakable danger at the time that their physical, psychological, and social development were propelling them toward adulthood. Internal intensity was intertwined with external threat, and their perception and responses reflect this" (x). In fact, many of these youths were forced to leap from being a child or adolescent to taking on adult roles literally overnight. Others suddenly were placed in situations in which they questioned their very being (one group of Jewish children, for example, were informed that they would contaminate their non-Jewish classmates and thus were removed from the school). Still others questioned actions of their parents (for instance, refusing to be actively resistant to the Nazis or to leave Nazi-occupied territory).

In her introduction, Nora Levin states: "We hope that our anthology will be used not only to dramatize experiences of teenagers during the Holocaust, but also to arouse interest in the social and political dislocations in Europe following World War I which form the seed bed for the rise of fascism and Nazism. . . . The stories of Jewish youths in this anthology also reveal the great diversity of Jewish life in Europe and the variety of European cultures in which they lived before the war" (xvii, xxi).

An introduction to each oral testimony provides information about the individual who is telling his or her story as well as specifics regarding the time period, the political situation, the actions of the Nazis, etc. This information will help readers place the individual story into the larger context of the Holocaust. The volume's four maps are extremely helpful for locating the places the speakers mention. An index of key terms would have been helpful as well, but some terms are footnoted.

A major motif of the volume is that almost all of these youths resisted the Nazis in one way or another: they listened to the radio (a capital offense); said "Guttentag" instead of "Heil Hitler"; cut telephone wires; went into hiding; or delivered messages for the resistance. Since students studying the Holocaust often ask why the Jews didn't fight back, these stories are useful in pointing out that they did and in various ways.

The speakers' individual voices and personalities shine through in these oral accounts. Line after line paints an indelible picture, as in the following: "Many times . . . the girls in school would leave a copy [of] Die Sturmer . . . the infamous hate sheet put out by Julius Streicher daily-on my desk during recess" (5); "I can never forget. . . . You see, I am now sixty-two years old. I will be able to forget when I am dead" (38); "I will be suspicious until the day I die" (117); and in a displaced persons' camp, "there I met for the &Mac222;rst time concentration camp inmates. . . . It must have been a small camp and I remember seeing baby shoes, little dolls. . . . [It was not until] after the war we knew that the people didn't come back. We couldn't believe it. We thought they were taking people for labor" (151).

Both teachers and secondary level students should &Mac222;nd these accounts highly engaging and informative.

Samuel Totten
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, Arkansas
Teaching Against the Grain: Texts for a Pedagogy of Possibility
By Roger I. Simon. New York: Bergin & Garvey, 1992. 172 pp. Reviewed by Sandra B. Oldendorf.
Teaching Against the Grain
is part of the Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series edited by Henry Giroux and Paulo Freire. Roger Simon offers a perspective on pedagogy that emphasizes the importance of teachers and their visions of the future. According to Simon, a "pedagogy of possibility . . . intended to enhance the expression of human dignity and secure the renewal of life on our planet cannot remain indifferent to the spiritual desire to understand our presence in both historical and cosmic time" (151). Expanding on this theme, Simon raises many points that are particularly relevant to social studies educators: using narrative to understand practices rather than focusing on what works; critically reflecting on our own experiences and those learned throughout history; daydreaming about a vision of social hope; raising questions of how to be practical and critical at the same time; and rooting educational possibilities in democratic ideals.

Simon's concept of "now time" in which "past text and present image are illuminated by a redemptive light" (149) is most timely. The Columbian Quincentenary has brought "now time" into sharp focus for many teachers. The past text offers much more than Columbus as a hero or villain, and the present image has helped us explore the myriad changes in the world, both good and bad, that resulted from two worlds coming together. According to Simon, teachers and students must experience the tension between past text and present image before they can move on to look at the future and its many possibilities. Furthermore, we can refuse and transform the legacy of our heritage.

The book, however, also illustrates a concern I have with many of the fine works on critical theory and critical pedagogy: they are written for other critical theorists. Simon wants to get past the fear of theory that many students and practitioners express, but much of the book will only reinforce such fears with whole chapters that lack specific examples. For a book that emphasizes the importance of grounding theory in experience, more narratives should have been included to allow readers to draw some of their own conclusions. Simon does use some vivid examples: a Yiddish version of The Merchant of Venice, for example, and historical photographs, one of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police taking a picture of an Indian in full headdress and another of ethnic southern and eastern Europeans working in post-war West Germany. These illustrate dialectical images of historical perspectives and future possibilities.

Although I think the book would have been strengthened by more extended examples of concepts such as dialectical images and "now time," Teaching Against the Grain would bring much life to a graduate seminar in social studies education. It would raise questions such as: How can teachers bring the past into dialectical imagery with the present? What perspectives should be heard? What are ways to juxtapose the present with that past-photography? biography? drama? historical documents? What lessons can we learn from the past to help create a better future with less oppression, racism, and sexism? What does "better" mean to American Indians? to African Americans? to people of Bosnia or South Africa or Peoria, Illinois? The message I received from Simon's book is that, as educators, we should bring students into contact with many voices of the past and the present, not only to encourage students to critically examine the past injustices and the flaws of society, but also to help them find meaningful ways to move ahead from these experiences to a more just future for all.

Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf
Western Montana College of the University of Montana
Dillon, Montana1
Global Education: A Study of School Change
By Barbara Tye and Kenneth A. Tye. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. 273 pp. $44.50 hardcover; $14.95 paper. Reviewed by M. Eugene Gilliom.
With this book, Barbara Tye and Kenneth A. Tye have made a major contribution to the emerging field of global education. The book describes a four-year effort spearheaded by the Center for Human Interdependence (CHI) at Chapman College to bring a global perspective to the curriculum of eleven schools in southern California. Pursuing the underlying question "What does it take to bring a global perspective to the curriculum of a school?" the authors skillfully unfold the story of the CHI staff's work in the target schools. Addressed along the way are the nature of global education, the importance of a global perspective, research as a reflection of practice, and the complex phenomenon of schooling. In fact, the book is as much about school change as it is about global education. The result is a work that provides not only a clear overview of the global education movement but also a frank and insightful analysis of the way schools actually function, warts and all.

Basic to the authors' analysis is their assertion that the deep structure of schooling is determined by basic values and assumptions widely shared throughout society. Deep structure is pervasive, nationwide, and protective of the status quo. However, as the authors further claim, individual schools have their own histories, traditions, and unique internal characteristics. Personalities of individual schools may change rapidly with the hiring of a new principal or changes in enrollment, for example. Therein lies the foundation for one of the authors' basic assertions: that concerted effort at the individual school site promises in most cases to have the greatest potential for bringing about desired educational change.

The authors' conceptual framework for their investigation is based upon symbolic interaction theory-an orientation that focuses primarily on individuals as they interact in daily life. This approach seemed to serve the authors well and yielded the "thick" descriptive data they sought. Their findings were supplemented by survey data gathered toward the end of the project. The result is a rich collection of insights about both global education and school change and a tantalizing list of hypotheses that could serve to focus research in this field for years to come.

I found this book well conceptualized, clearly written, and disarmingly frank. The authors have reason to feel good about their efforts in furthering the cause of global education. This book, however, is not self-serving; rather, setbacks faced during the project as well as accomplishments are described and evaluated in an appealing, even-handed way.

This book would be appropriate reading not only for those studying global education and school change but in courses on educational research. In addition, school administrators and school board members everywhere could benefit from studying the book as they face decisions regarding curriculum and the organization of schools in the coming years, particularly as they relate to global education.

M. Eugene Gilliom
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio 1
Curriculum for Utopia: Social Reconstruction and Critical Pedagogy in the Postmodern Era
By William B. Stanley. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. 266 pp. $16.95 paper. Reviewed by James G. Ladwig.
I think it is safe to say that there exists something of a gap between radical and mainstream curriculum scholarship in the United States. Many social educators would probably be familiar, for example, with the long-standing divide between radical curricular thought and more liberal, progressive educational ideals. Some social educators who have an interest in curriculum theory also would have studied the specific divide between Marxist radicals in education and the more influential pragmatists of U.S. curricular history. But few curriculum scholars have attempted to bring together mainstream and radical curricular thought in anything more than a passing fashion. In characteristically unassuming prose, it is to this last task that Bill Stanley has responded best. Of all the potential audiences for Stanley's Curriculum for Utopia, the one best served, I believe, will be those social educators who have worked within mainstream social education during the day, then gone home at night to read the forgotten radicals of American social education.

Connecting social reconstructionism, mainstream social education, and contemporary radical curriculum theory, Curriculum for Utopia begins what is the very interesting and fruitful scholastic enterprise of tracing the historical intellectual bases for the current disregard of radical debates in social education. As Stanley puts it, "Too often, the anti-intellectual, ahistorical, and narcissistic temper of our present culture has tended to undervalue and ignore that past" (3). In general, Stanley's historical memory is what I believe to be of most value. More specifically concerned with social education curriculum, Stanley's retracing of the social reconstructionist legacy is thoughtful, parsimonious, and balanced.

In a chapter concerned with the critical receptions of American reconstructionism and the relationship between reconstructionism and mainstream social curriculum, Stanley nicely highlights the transformative potential (and implicit political limits) found within social education's common general ideal of developing "good citizens." Turning to more specific contemporary social studies proposals for social citizenship and social action, Stanley then provides an interesting analysis of familiar work of social educators, such as Don Oliver, Jim Shaver, and Fred Newmann. Juxtaposing early twentieth-century American radical educational theory with contemporary calls for curricula that attempt to develop democratic citizens is an analytical link well worth considering and pursuing in great depth.

Unfortunately, Stanley's book does not pursue this line of analysis very far. Instead, with the dubious label "Critical Pedagogy," Stanley draws together many current radical thinkers who draw from structural neo-Marxism, post-structuralism, feminism, post-structural feminism, post-colonialism, and deconstruction. Explicitly aware of the fact that educational theorists who build on these various (and sometimes contradictory) conceptual frameworks do not consider themselves part of some nostalgically unified American radicalism, Stanley is perhaps unaware of the degree to which Curriculum for Utopia reads as an apologia for the radical theorists he places center stage. However, as an introduction to debates among current curricular theorists, Stanley's analysis may be helpful, and his splicing of divergent curricular agendas certainly hints at a project of great potential and insight.

James G. Ladwig
The University of Newcastle
Newcastle, Australia 1
Best Little Stories from the White House
By C. Brian Kelly. Charlottesville, Va.: Montpelier Publishing, 1992. 241 pp. $10.95 paper. Reviewed by Ron Marinucci.
The appearance of this entertaining, informative book is timely for social studies teachers. For a variety of reasons, students are reading less and less. Teachers are looking for subject-related material that will attract student readers, many of whom remember the 1992 presidential election, which kindled interest in presidents and the presidency.

Best Little Stories from the White House provides help in each of these areas. The 101 vignettes are neatly presented, only a page or two in length. Some stories are merely "gems of trivia," entertaining, leading readers on to more. We and out about Harry Truman's poker games on the presidential yacht and in Fulton, Missouri, with Winston Churchill on the eve of Churchill's Iron Curtain speech. It's hard to picture Woodrow Wilson, from what we know of him, playing tag with his children in the White House corridors, but we see him doing that here.

More serious stories focus, for instance, on Abraham Lincoln, called by his secretary "the greatest character since Christ," and his encounter with famed orator Edward Everett at Gettysburg. The day after their speeches were delivered, Everett penned this note to the president: "I should be glad, if I could ßatter myself that I came as near the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did in two minutes."

We discover that Grover Cleveland had surgery to remove a cancerous growth from his mouth. The surgery was secretly performed on a yacht on the East River in New York. We also learn that Rutherford B. Hayes was sworn in nearly 18 hours early to prevent a time with no president while dangerous "street demonstrations [were] cropping up in Washington" over his murky election.

Some vignettes are likely to cause reconsideration of typical pictures of some presidents, especially of Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover. Others entertain with presidential one-liners. For instance, after spending his first night in the White House, Gerald Ford called it "the best public housing I've ever seen."

The writing is lively and fun to read. A bonus is the thirty-six page "First Ladies in Review," written by Ingrid Smyer. Most firrst ladies are presented in thumbnail sketches, some (Eleanor Roosevelt, Lady Bird Johnson) longer than others (Abigail Fillmore, Ellen Arthur). Emphasis is placed on recent first ladies, due largely to their increased responsibilities and visibility in later times.

Social studies teachers seeking to build on students' interest in the presidency and to get their students to read will get a real boost from this book.

Ron Marinucci
Commerce, Michigan 1
How to Tape Instant Oral Biographies: Recording Your Family's Life Story in Sound and Sight
By Bill Zimmerman. New York: Bantam Books, 1992. 112 pp. $8.50 paper. Reviewed by John D. Hoge.
When social studies teachers get the urge to have students collect family oral histories, I hope they have a copy of Bill Zimmerman's new book close at hand. Zimmerman has combined his twenty-five years of news reporting and interviewing experience with his love of family history to produce an attractive, easy-to-read guide to recording family biographies. Written in large type and attractively illustrated by Tom Bloom, this book will be easily read by upper elementary level students. The practical suggestions, long list of sample interview questions, and numerous charts for recording information make the book equally useful for adults.

Rooted in his own interviews of family members and the experience he gained helping classroom teachers collect family histories, Zimmerman's book offers step-by-step procedures for audio or video taping of family biographies. Creative ideas are included on how to interview, use old pictures and other memorabilia, and tape family members using their heirlooms, demonstrating crafts, wearing costumes, or cooking from original family recipes.

Often using personal anecdotes, Zimmerman explains the value of collecting family oral histories. At one point in interviewing his mother, Zimmerman remembers that she cried when she recalled something about her own mother: "We stopped for a moment-the tape still running-then went on. She said later that she was glad to have remembered the event, for even with the pain, it helped her remember how she was as a little girl. For me, as I relisten to that recording, that moment of feeling is very precious" (18).

Zimmerman's first chapter, "What's an Instant Oral Biography?," explains that by using the predesigned forms, interview questions, and an audio or videotape recorder, "anyone-child or adult-can easily prepare oral biographies." Chapter 2 contains eleven pages of practical and insightful advice on how to interview family members. Guidelines suggest how to overcome fears of handling a tape recorder, how to keep the interview going and make it interesting, and secrets of staying organized. Chapters 3 and 4 offer ideas for videotaping interviews and a checklist of steps to take in preparation for interviews.

Sample questions form the content focus of Chapter 5. Zimmerman shows the reader how to ask clear questions that will elicit memories. Then he goes a step further, including full-page graphics designed to spur interviewers' creativity in forming their own questions.

Chapter 6 offers suggestions on rounding out an elder's taped biography with anecdotes from other family members. Additional interview angles and questions about family religious practices and traditions are the focus of Chapter 7. Fifty-three pages of family tree worksheets are provided in Chapter 8, encouraging students to trace both sides of their family heritage back to great-grandparents. The final chapter is a guide for educators, designed to help teachers overcome some of the common problems associated with interviewing parents and grandparents in a classroom setting.

How to Tape Instant Oral Biographies is a valuable guide for involving students in collecting oral family histories.

John D. Hoge
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia 1
Internationalizing the U.S. Classroom: Japan as a Model
Edited by Linda S. Wojtan and Donald Spence. ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education and the National Clearinghouse for United States-Japan Studies, 1992. 167 pp. $10.00 paper. Reviewed by Angene H. Wilson.
This collection of articles describes professional development, curriculum design and enhancement, and exchange in U.S. classrooms using Japan as the content. In addition, almost all chapters are relevant to internationalizing the classroom, using other areas of the world.

The editors and authors, members of the National Precollegiate Japan Projects Network (most of whom are well known to NCSS audiences), offer many practical ideas. The "how-to" suggestions for in-service workshops, summer institutes, curriculum development projects, resource centers, and study tours are clearly presented and applicable to more general internationalizing.

Good ideas abound in "Internationalizing the Social Studies Teacher Education Program: Japan as a Case Study," in which Patricia Weiss lists ten creative ways to infuse the study of Japan (or another country or area of the world) into the methods course. Likewise, in "Exchange: Bringing People and Ideas Together," John J. Cogan brings together five cases of local people and material exchanges. My favorite cases in the book include the lesson plan on three Buddhists from the SPICE unit; "Religion in Japan and a Look at Cultural Transmission" (in the curriculum development chapter); and the description of Mount Edgecumbe, Alaska's school-based business (in the chapter on contemporary U.S.-Japan business relations).

David Grossman makes the point in the first chapter that many who teach about Japan would cite "personal contact with the culture of Japan, either through travel, reading, and/or in-service workshops as significant motivational factors." Concurring with the importance of travel, Weiss urges study abroad and student teaching overseas for future social studies teachers. Lynn Parisi and Duane Christian outline steps for effective study tours for in-service teachers. In the final chapter, Barbara Finkelstein describes an intercultural education that asks people to dwell in the experience of other and "to 'read' another culture with intuition and logic, care and reason, with open minds and open hearts." International or cross-cultural experience with such goals needs to be available for many more teachers and students-in Japan and elsewhere in the world-as a basic contribution to internationalizing U.S. classrooms.

Angene H. Wilson
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky

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